Neotropical Raptors: Proceedings of the IVth Conference, Costa Rica 10-13 October 2016

All abstracts accepted for presentation at the conference will be published in the conference Proceedings.

All authors accepted for presentation at the conference are strongly encouraged to submit full papers for publication in the proceedings. They will be published in English, but may be submitted in Spanish or Portuguese for professional translation into English. We anticipate the proceedings will be published about 1 year after the conference.

Full papers must be submitted no later than the last day of the conference. Papers can be submitted at the conference on CD-Rom or transferred from USB flash-drive to the designated computer at the registration desk. Please be sure to comply with the style rules below before submitting your paper.

Paper preparation instructions:

Papers for publication in the conference proceedings should be submitted no later than 13 October 2016.


Papers are to be submitted via email as an attachment, saved as a Microsoft Word (.doc) file.

Send papers to

In cases where the file may be too large to email, please send your paper using DropBox, Google Docs or other similar format.


Papers should come with a separate summary containing 2-3 sentences of basic-level introduction to the field; a brief account of the background and rationale of the work; a statement of the main conclusions (introduced by the phrase 'Here we show' or its equivalent); and 2-3 sentences putting the main findings into general context so it is clear how the results described have moved the field forwards. This summary may simply be the abstract you previously provided to us (if so, please provide it to us again with your paper submission).

The paper should begin with a section of referenced text expanding on the background to the work, before proceeding to a concise, focused account of the methods, then results, and ending with a discussion section. References should be included at the end.

Use the following formatting rules (adapted from The Auk's style rules).

General Instructions

Format your manuscripts for 8.5 x 11-inch paper, 12-point font, double-spaced throughout, including tables, figure legends, and literature cited. Text pages should include line numbering.

Leave at least a 1-inch (25-mm) margin on all sides. Do not hyphenate words at ends of lines.

Use italic type instead of underlining words to be italicized.

Only the following Latin terms should be italicized: in vivo, in vitro, in utero, in situ, ad libitum, a priori, and a posteriori. All other Latin terms (except scientific names) should be left un-italicized.

Cite each figure and table in the text. Tables and figures must be sequenced in the order cited.

Use "Figure" only outside of parentheses. Otherwise, use "Fig." if singular, "Figs." if plural (e.g., Fig. 2; Figs. 2 and 3; Figs. 3-6).

To cite figures or tables from another work, write figure or table in lowercase (e.g., figure 2 in Smith 1980; table 5 in Jones 1987).

All measurements are to be given in SI units.

Use continental dating (e.g., 29 September 1992), the 24-hour clock (e.g., 0800 and 2300 hours), and standard time (not daylight savings time). Specify that it is Standard Time (e.g., EST for Eastern Standard Time) at first reference to time of day.

Use the following abbreviations: s (second), min (minute), h (hour); designate temperature as 36°C. Do not abbreviate day, week, month, or year.

For user-defined abbreviations, write out words in full the first time a term is used in the text. Abbreviate thereafter: "Second-year (SY) birds . . . We found SY birds in large numbers."

Use the following statistical abbreviations: ANOVA, SD, SE, df, CV, NS, n, P, r, F, G, χ2, t-test, U-test. Other statistical abbreviations, in general, should conform to sixth edition of Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (1994, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom).

Numbers: Write out one to nine unless a measurement, but use numerals for larger numbers (e.g., three birds, 6 mm, 12 days, 2 min). If number is in a series with at least one number being 10 or more, then use all numerals (e.g., 6 males and 13 females). Use 1,000 not 1000, 0.01 not .01, and 50% instead of 50 percent.

All gene or amino acid sequences must be deposited in GenBank or an equivalent repository, and the accession number(s) reported in the Methods.

Five to seven key words, which summarize the major findings of the study, should be placed after the abstract.

Each reference cited in the text must be listed in the Literature Cited section and vice versa. Please make a final check when the revised manuscript is complete.

Literature citations in text are to be as follows:

  1. One author: Able (1989) or (Able 1989).
  2. Two authors: Able and Baker (1989) or (Able and Baker 1989).
  3. Three or more authors: Able et al. (1989) or (Able et al. 1989). In Literature Cited section, give names of all authors.
  4. Manuscripts that are accepted for publication but not yet published: Able (1996) if date known.
  5. Unpublished materials: (K. P. Able unpubl. data); (K. P. Able pers. obs.); or (K. P. Able pers. comm.).
  6. Within parentheses: (Charley 1980; Able 1983, 1990; Able and Baker 1984); (Baker 1989, Able 1992, Charley 1996); (Able 1988a, b, c).

Assemble manuscript in following order: (1) Title Page; (2) Abstract; (3) Key Words; (4) Text; (5) Acknowledgments; (6) Literature Cited; (7) Tables; (8) Figure Legends; (9) Figures; and (10) Appendices, if needed.

Title Page

Number Title Page as page 1, and present items in following order:

Running head (36 characters or less). Use italics and capitalize significant words.

Title in capital letters.

Author names.

Author addresses at time research was carried out. Current addresses, if different, should be indicated as footnotes at bottom of title page. Footnotes are not used except to indicate current addresses of authors, author's current e-mail address, or death of an author.

Name, current address, and e-mail address of corresponding author.

Text (page 2, etc.)

Follow the general instructions, above.

Do not repeat information given on title page.

The following are typical main headings: ABSTRACT, KEY WORDS, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, and LITERATURE CITED (no heading for Introduction).

Keep headings to a minimum. Most manuscripts have two levels of headings: (1) centered caps and small caps, (2) indented italics with only the first word capitalized followed by a period, a dash, and the text. If three levels of headings are required use: (1) centered caps and small caps, (2) flush left caps and small caps, (3) indented italics with only the first word capitalized followed by a period, a dash, and the text.

Literature Cited (continue page numbering)

Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, volume and page numbers, accents, diacritical marks, and spelling in languages other than English. Capitalize all nouns in German.

Cite references in alphabetical order by first author's surname and then his/her initials. References by a single author precede multi-authored works by same first author, regardless of date. Listings with multiple authors are done by first author's name (surname and then initials), second author's name, etc.

List works by the same author(s) in chronological order, beginning with earliest date of publication. If author has two works in same year, place in order of first citation in text; these works should be lettered consecutively (e.g., 1991a, b).

"In press" citations must have been accepted for publication, with the name of journal or publisher included with year and volume number.

Do not write author names in uppercase. Use "normal" case (e.g., Hendricks, D. P.) or the "small caps" command. Insert a period and space after each initial of an author's name, and note that a comma always precedes the "and" in a list of authors' names.

Journal titles should be written in full and not abbreviated. Book titles should be capitalized.

To achieve consistency among all papers, author's initials (when used) should always have one space between initials. For example, Mouse, M. J. is correct, but Mouse, M.J. is not.

Citations should follow formats given below:


Browne, R. A., C. R. Griffin, P. R. Chang, M. Hubley, and A. E. Martin. 1993. Genetic divergence among populations of the Hawaiian Duck, Laysan Duck, and Mallard. Auk 110:49-56.

Fahrig, L., and G. Merriam. 1994. Conservation of fragmented populations. Conservation Biology 8:50-59.

Roth, R. R., and R. K. Johnson. 1993. Long-term dynamics of a Wood Thrush population breeding in a forest fragment. Auk 110:37-48.

Willis, E. O., and Y. Oniki. 1978. Birds and army ants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:243-263.

Dissertations, Books, Chapters

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds, 7th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Freeman, S. 1990. Molecular systematics and morphological evolution in the blackbirds. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Gaunt, A. S. 1988. Interaction of syringeal structure and airflow in avian phonation. Pages 915-924 in Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici (H. Ouellet, Ed.). National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario.

Kear, J. 1970. The adaptive radiation of parental care in waterfowl. Pages 357-392 in Social Behaviour in Birds and Mammals (J. H. Crook, Ed.). Academic Press, London.

Lack, D. 1954. The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Lowther, P. E. 1993. Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). In The Birds of North America, no. 47 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Walsberg, G. E. 1983. Avian ecological energetics. Pages 161-220 in Avian Biology, vol. 7 (D. S. Farner, J. R. King, and K. C. Parkes, Eds.). Academic Press, New York.

Electronic Sources

Due to the transitory nature of many websites, avoid using electronic sources wherever possible. If an electronic source is used, it must be accessible and not password protected.

Keitt, T. H., D. L. Urban, and B. T. Milne. 1997. Detecting critical scales in fragmented landscapes. Conservation Ecology 1, article 4.[Online.] Available at

Tables (continue page numbering)

Tables are to be submitted as editable Word files, not as pictures.

Each table must start on a separate page and be double-spaced throughout (header, table body, footnotes). Table numbers should be Arabic numerals followed by a period.

Capitalize first word of the title; all other words should be lowercase unless a proper noun. Include a period at end of the title.

Indicate footnotes by lowercase superscript letters (a, b, c, etc.).

Do not use vertical lines in tables.

Include horizontal lines above and below boxhead, and at end of table.

All tables and figures should be designed so as to be readable in black and white.

Figure Legends (continue page numbering)

Start with "Fig.". Indent and double space legends. Type legends in paragraph form.

Do not include "exotic symbols" (lines, dots, triangles, etc.) in figure legends; either label them in figure or refer to them by name in legend.

Preparation of Illustrations

Figures must have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. Acceptable file formats include (in order of preference) TIF, JPEG, or EPS.

Routine illustrations are black and white halftones (photographs), drawings, or graphs. Do not use color.

All figures must be 3" wide (height is variable); in rare cases when a figure is very detailed, up to 6" width is allowed. Minimum resolution at final size is 300 dots per inch.

Photos may be 8-bit RGB mode if color; please include a grayscale version of each if possible. File size should be less than 2 megabytes for each photo.

Preferred format for photos is tiff; jpg and eps are acceptable.

Preferred format for illustrations and graphs is Adobe Illustrator eps; pdf, jpg, and tiff are acceptable.

In illustrations and graphs with lines, use minimum .5 point; do not place a border around graphs or illustrations.

For all text in illustrations use Helvetica, minimum 8 point, maximum 10 point. Any non-Helvetica fonts or symbols should be converted to artwork.

Use black and white only; if shades of gray are necessary, ensure good contrast with at least 20% variations (e.g., white, 20% gray, 40% gray, 60% gray, 80% gray, and black).

Each figure must be submitted as an individual file labeled with the figure number. Figures may be inserted in the Word file of the paper to show proper placement, but the inserted figure is not sufficient for reproduction.


Papers with statistical testing should state the name of the test, the n for each analysis, the comparisons of interest, a justification for the use of that test, the alpha level for all tests, whether the tests were one- or two-tailed, and the actual P value for each test.

Data sets should be summarized with descriptive statistics, which should include the n for each data set, a clearly labeled measure of center (such as the mean or the median), and a clearly labeled measure of variability (such as the standard deviation or range).

Graphs should include clearly labeled error bars as part of the figure legend, where appropriate. Authors must state whether a number that follows the +/- sign is a standard error (s.e.m.) or a standard deviation (s.d.).

Re-Publishing Your Paper

Some academic journals have specific rules regarding the publishing of papers in other venues once they have been published in the journal. Similarly, some journals will not accept work that has already been published elsewhere. Therefore, it is up to each author to determine if they can or cannot publish their work in the proceedings for this conference.

For work that cannot be published in the proceedings for this conference, we will consider allowing the author to present his or her work during the conference, with only an abstract of the paper being included in the conference proceedings (a bibliographical reference to the previously published paper would be provided with the abstract to ensure that readers are made aware of the full publication work). Please email us at to discuss this option.